Book Erratum

Due to a mistake in the last stages of the editing process, Endnote 2 of Indispensable was truncated after the first paragraph, omitting a key citation and a survey of the literature on leadership. The relevant citations were included in the bibliography, but not in this endnote. Endnote 2 should read:

For a survey of the political science literature arguing that leaders are of little importance see Fred I. Greenstein, "The Impact of Personality on the End of the Cold War: A Counterfactual Analysis," Political Psychology 19, no. 1 (1998). For the same in management see Rakesh Khurana, Searching for a Corporate Savior: The Irrational Quest for Charismatic CEOs (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002). For how leadership can be important even when individual leaders need not be see Michael D. Cohen, James G. March, and Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, Leadership and Ambiguity: The American College President (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1986). 282.

All three forces together were first described in Stanley Lieberson and James F. O'Connor, "Leadership and Organizational Performance: A Study of Large Corporations," American Sociological Review 37, no. 2 (1972).

Major works in political science arguing for or assuming the unimportance of leaders include Graham T. Allison and Philip Zelikow, Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, 2nd ed. (New York, NY: Longman, 1999); Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, The Logic of Political Survival (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003); Bruce Bueno de Mesquita et al., "Testing Novel Implications From the Selectorate Theory of War," World Politics 56, no. 3 (2004); Ole R. Holsti, "U.S. Leadership Attitudes Toward the Soviet Union, 1976-1988," in Diplomacy, Force, and Leadership: Essays in Honor of Alexander L. George, ed. Dan Caldwell and Timothy J. McKeown (Boulder: Westview Press, 1993); ———, Public Opinion and American Foreign Policy, Analytical Perspectives on Politics (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2004); Andrei S. Markovits and Simon Reich, The German Predicament: Memory and Power in the New Europe (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997); Paul A. Papayoanou, Power Ties: Economic Interdependence, Balancing, and War (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1999); James N. Rosenau, Public opinion and Foreign Policy: An Operational Formulation, Studies in Political Science (New York, NY: Random House, 1961); James N. Rosenau, ed. Domestic Sources of Foreign Policy (New York, NY: Free Press, 1967); Beth A. Simmons, Who adjusts?: Domestic Sources of Foreign Economic Policy During the Interwar Years, Princeton Studies in International History and Politics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994); Kenneth N. Waltz, Theory of International Politics, First ed. (Boston, MA: McGraw Hill, 1979).

For management research arguing for the relative unimportance of leaders or individuals more generally see Nan Weiner, "Situational and Leadership Influence on Organizational Performance," Administrative Science Quarterly 33(1978); Nan Weiner and Thomas A. Mahoney, "A Model of Corporate Performance as a Function of Environmental, Organizational, and Leadership Influences," Academy of Management Journal 24, no. 3 (1981); Alan Berkeley Thomas, "Does Leadership Make a Difference to Organizational Performance?," Administrative Science Quarterly 33, no. 3 (1988); Michael T. Hannan and John Freeman, "The Population Ecology of Organizations," The American Journal of Sociology 82, no. 5 (1977); Michael T. Hannan and John H. Freeman, Organizational Ecology (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989); Eugene F. Fama, "Efficient Capital Markets: A Review of Theory and Empirical Work," The Journal of Finance 25, no. 2 (1970); Eugene F. Fama and Kenneth R. French, The Capital Asset Pricing Model: Theory and Evidence (SSRN, 2003); David Braybrooke and Charles E. Lindblom, A Strategy of Decision (London: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1963); Albert O. Hirschman, Exit, voice, and loyalty: responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970); James G. March and Herbert A. Simon, Organizations (New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1959); Joanne Martin, Cultures in Organizations: Three Perspectives (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1992); Herbert A. Simon, Administrative Behavior (New York, NY: The Free Press, 1968); John D. Steinbruner, The Cybernetic Theory of Decision (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974); James D. Thompson, Organizations in Action (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1967); Jeffrey Pfeffer, "The Ambiguity of Leadership," Academy of Management Review 2, no. 1 (1977).

Although the general thrust of political science has held that leaders are of relatively limited importance, there is nonetheless a rich tradition of research that finds that individual leaders can play a very important role in politics, particularly international relations. See Daniel L. Byman and Kenneth M. Pollack, "Let Us Now Praise Great Men: Bringing the Statesman Back In," International Security 25, no. 4 (2001): 133-36; Glenn D. Paige, The Scientific Study of Political Leadership (New York, NY: The Free Press, 1977). 111, 348; Ole R. Holsti, "Foreign Policy Decision Makers Viewed Psychologically: "Cognitive Process" Approaches," in In Search of Global Patterns, ed. James N. Rosenau (New York: The Free Press, 1976); Margaret G. Hermann et al., "Who Leads Matters: The Effects of Powerful Individuals," International Studies Review 3, no. 2, Leaders, Groups, and Coalitions: Understanding the People and Processes in Foreign Policymaking (2001): 85; ibid; Margaret G. Hermann, "Who Becomes a Political Leader? Some Societal and Regime Influences on Selection of a Head of State," in Psychological Models in International Politics, ed. Lawrence S. Falkowski (Boulder: Westview Press, 1979); Karen A. Rasler, William R. Thompson, and Kathleen M. Chester, "Foreign Policy Makers, Personality Attributes, and Interviews: A Note on Reliability Problems," International Studies Quarterly 24, no. 1 (1980); Michael D. Wallace and Peter Suedfeld, "Leadership Performance in Crisis: The Longevity-Complexity Link," International Studies Quarterly 32, no. 4 (1988); Ryan K. Beasley et al., "People and Processes in Foreign Policymaking: Insights from Comparative Case Studies," International Studies Review 3, no. 2 (2001); Michael J. Driver, "Individual Differences as Determinants of Aggression in the Inter-Nation Simulation," in A Psychological Examination of Political Leaders, ed. Margaret G. Hermann and Thomas W. Milburn (New York: The Free Press, 1977); Daniel Druckman, "The Person, Role, and Situation in International Negotiations," in A Psychological Examination of Political Leaders, ed. Margaret G. Hermann and Thomas W. Milburn (New York: The Free Press, 1977); Maryann E. Gallagher, "High Rolling Leaders: The "Big Five" Model of Personality and Risk-Taking During War," in International Studies Association-South Conference (Miami2005); Charles F. Hermann, "Changing Course: When Governments Choose to Redirect Foreign Policy," International Studies Quarterly 34, no. 1 (1990); Margaret G. Hermann, "When Leader Personality Will Affect Foreign Policy: Some Propositions," in In Search of Global Patterns, ed. James N. Rosenau (New York: The Free Press, 1976); ———, "Verbal Behavior of Negotiators in Periods of High and Low Stress: The 1965-66 New York City Transit Negotiations," in A Psychological Examination of Political Leaders, ed. Margaret G. Hermann and Thomas W. Milburn (New York: The Free Press, 1977); ———, "Explaining Foreign Policy Behavior Using the Personal Characteristics of Leaders," International Studies Quarterly 24, no. 1 (1980); ———, "Leaders and Foreign Policy Decision-Making," in Diplomacy, Force, and Leadership: Essays in Honor of Alexander L. George, ed. Dan Caldwell and Timothy J. McKeown (Boulder: Westview Press, 1993); Margaret G. Hermann and Joe D. Hagan, "International Decision Making: Leadership Matters," Foreign Policy, no. 110 (1998); Paul A. Kowert and Margaret G. Hermann, "Who Takes Risks? Daring and Caution in Foreign Policy Making," The Journal of Conflict Resolution 41, no. 3 (1997); Louis H. Stewart, "Birth Order and Political Leadership," in A Psychological Examination of Political Leaders, ed. Margaret G. Hermann and Thomas W. Milburn (New York: The Free Press, 1977); Elizabeth Nathan Saunders, "Wars of Choice: Leadership, Threat Perception, and Military Interventions" (Dissertation, Yale University, 2007); Alexander L. George, "The 'Operational Code': A Neglected Approach to the Study of Political Leaders and Decision-Making," International Studies Quarterly 13, no. 2 (1969); ———, "The Causal Nexus between Cognitive Beliefs and Decision-Making Behavior: The "Operational Code" Belief System," in Psychological Models in International Politics, ed. Lawrence S. Falkowski (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1979); ———, Presidential Decisionmaking in Foreign Policy: The Effective Use of Information and Advice, Paperback ed., Westview Special Studies in International Relations (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1980); Alexander L. George and Juliette L. George, Presidential Personality & Performance (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998); Betty Glad, "Why Tyrants Go Too Far: Malignant Narcissism and Absolute Power," Political Psychology 23, no. 1 (2002); Jerrold M. Post, "Current Concepts of the Narcissistic Personality: Implications for Political Psychology," Political Psychology 14, no. 1 (1993); ———, ed. The Psychological Assessment of Political Leaders (Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 2003); ———, Leaders and Their Followers in a Dangerous World, ed. C. Fred Alford and James M. Glass, Psychoanalysis and Social Theory (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2004); Jerrold M. Post and Robert S. Robins, "The Captive King and His Captive Court: The Psychopolitical Dynamics of the Disabled Leader and His Inner Circle," Political Psychology 11, no. 2 (1990); ———, When Illness Strikes the Leader: The Dilemma of the Captive King (New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1993); Robert S. Robins, "Introduction to the Topic of Psychopathology and Political Leadership," in Psychopathology and Political Leadership, ed. Robert S. Robins, Tulane Studies in Political Science (New Orleans, LA: Tulane University, 1977); ———, "Recruitment of Pathological Deviants into Political Leadership," in Psychopathology and Political Leadership, ed. Robert S. Robins, Tulane Studies in Political Science (New Orleans, LA: Tulane University, 1977); Stephen G. Walker, Mark Schafer, and Michael D. Young, "Profiling the Operational Codes of Political Leaders," in The Psychological Assessment of Political Leaders, ed. Jerrold M. Post (Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 2003); Michael D. Young and Mark Schafer, "Is There Method in Our Madness? Ways of Assessing Cognition in International Relations," Mershon International Studies Review 42, no. 1 (1998).

Similarly, there are significant findings of leader impact, although not necessarily a very large one, in the management and economics literature, including Noam Wasserman, Bharat Anand, and Nitin Nohria, "When Does Leadership Matter? A Contingent Opportunities View of CEO Leadership," in Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice, ed. Nitin Nohria and Rakesh Khurana (Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press, 2010); Benjamin F. Jones and Benjamin A. Olken, "Do Leaders Matter? National Leadership and Growth Since World War II," The Quarterly Journal of Economics 120, no. 3 (2005); ———, "Hit or Miss? The Effect of Assassinations on Institutions and War," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics 1, no. 2 (2009); Jonathan E. Smith, Kenneth P. Carson, and Ralph A. Alexander, "Leadership: It Can Make a Difference," Academy of Management Journal 27, no. 4 (1984); Thomas, "Does Leadership Make a Difference to Organizational Performance?."; Marianne Bertrand and Antoinette Schoar, "Managing with Style: The Effect of Managers on Firm Policies," The Quarterly Journal of Economics CXVIII, no. 4 (2003); Anil K. Gupta and V. Govindarajan, "Business Unit Strategy, Managerial Characteristics, and Business Unit Effectiveness at Strategy Implementation," Academy of Management Journal 27, no. 1 (1984); Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries and Danny Miller, "Neurotic Style and Organizational Pathology," Strategic Management Journal 5, no. 1 (1984); Danny Miller, Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries, and Jean-Marie Toulouse, "Top Executive Locus of Control and Its Relationship to Strategy-Making, Structure, and Environment," Academy of Management Journal 25, no. 2 (1982); Ulrike Malmendier and Geoffrey Tate, "CEO Overconfidence and Corporate Investment," The Journal of Finance LX, no. 6 (2005); Michael Maccoby, The Productive Narcissist: The Promise and Peril of Visionary Leadership (New York, NY: Broadway Books, 2003).

The psychology literature, strikingly, has generally found leadership to be very important. Dean Keith Simonton, Why Presidents Succeed: A Political Psychology of Leadership (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987); ———, "Presidential Style: Personality, Biography, and Performance," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55, no. 6 (1988); ———, "Putting the Best Leaders in the White House: Personality, Policy, and Performance," Political Psychology 14, no. 3 (1993); ———, Greatness: Who Makes History and Why (New York, NY: The Guilford Press, 1994); ———, "Mad King George: The Impact of Personal and Political Stress on Mental and Physical Health," Journal of Personality 66, no. 3 (1998); ———, "Presidential IQ, Openness, Intellectual Brilliance, and Leadership: Estimates and Correlations for 42 U.S. Chief Executives," Political Psychology 27, no. 4 (2006); Robert Hogan, "Trouble at the Top: Causes and Consequences of Managerial Incompetence," Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 46, no. 1 (1994); Robert Hogan, Gordon J. Curphy, and Joyce Hogan, "What We Know About Leadership: Effectiveness and Personality," American Psychologist 49, no. 6 (1994); Robert Hogan and Robert B. Kaiser, "What We Know About Leadership," Review of General Psychology 9, no. 2 (2005); Robert B. Kaiser, Robert Hogan, and S. Bartholomew Craig, "Leadership and the Fate of Organizations," American Psychologist 63, no. 2 (2008); Mark Van Vugt, Robert Hogan, and Robert B. Kaiser, "Leadership, Followership, and Evolution," American Psychologist 63, no. 3 (2008).

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